In the last two weeks of the Lectionary, Weeks 29 and 30 of year A, we've had this story (in two parts):
The Pharisees went off and plotted how they might entrap Jesus in speech. They sent their disciples to him, with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are a truthful man and that you teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. And you are not concerned with anyone's opinion, for you do not regard a person's status. Tell us, then, what is your opinion: Is it lawful to pay the census tax to Caesar or not?" Knowing their malice, Jesus said, "Why are you testing me, you hypocrites? Show me the coin that pays the census tax." Then they handed him the Roman coin. He said to them, "Whose image is this and whose inscription?" They replied, "Caesar's." At that he said to them,"Then repay to Caesar what belongs to Caesar and to God what belongs to God." (Matthew 22:15-21, 29th Sunday)
When the Pharisees heard that Jesus had silenced the Sadducees, they gathered together, and one of them, a scholar of the law tested him by asking, "Teacher, which commandment in the law is the greatest?" He said to him, "You shall love the Lord, your God, with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the greatest and the first commandment. The second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments." (Matthew 22:34-40, 30th Sunday)There are, in addition, several other moments in the Gospel stories where Jesus is seen in discussion with the religious leaders of the people. It is a homiletical commonplace to use these to say, "Jesus was offering a different vision than the Jews had hitherto." In fact, it can be tempting to do so because so may have done so. That such often arises from a covert Anti-Semitism, especially among the more liberal, is dangerous. The approach is, generally, "The legalistic religious experts were wrong. Love is the Answer". We place a homiletic rupture between the Good Jesus and the bad Jewish elders. Specifically, it's right up there with the Jews killed Christ in terms of misunderstanding what's going on here.
A cursory reading of Jewish Culture will recognize what's going on here: rabbis debate. Rabbis debate with their students to understand the law. Rabbis debate with each other to sharpen their skills. Rabbis debate with each other to correct errors. This debate can be rather calm and contemplative, or it can be heated. We see all types of this discussion in the New Testament: Jesus at dinner parties, Jesus on street corners. Now, to be clear: Jesus is God. To disagree with his point is sin - and it's the trump card for Christians. But on the streets of the Jewish Communities in the Roman Empire of the 1st Century, AD, this was not a thing. Jesus was God using the cultural tools available. Rabbinic Debate was the way to be. Jesus' actions are in continuity with the actions of those around him. We must read the Gospels in this hermeneutic.
Dealing with the second Gospel story first (because it's what made me grumpy) we have to know the history behind Jesus' response. The greatest commandment is one that pious Jews recite three times a day as part of their daily prayers. It is the obvious answer. The second one, like unto the first, though: there's a story behind that one. I've heard two versions of this story - and I will cite the one I don't like first. It's not the first one I read, though, which is the same all the way through except the punch line. It is the one that comes with a citation, though.
One famous account in the Talmud (Shabbat 31a) tells about a gentile who wanted to convert to Judaism. This happened not infrequently, and this individual stated that he would accept Judaism only if a rabbi would teach him the entire Torah while he, the prospective convert, stood on one foot. First he went to Shammai, who, insulted by this ridiculous request, threw him out of the house. The man did not give up and went to Hillel. This gentle sage accepted the challenge, and said:
"What is hateful to you, do not do to your neighbor. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation of this--go and study it!"
(The cited text backs up this version.)
The second version of the story, the one I read first, has Rabbi Hillel respond thus: The main idea of the Torah is ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ Although the text of this second story is not backed up by the Talmud as such, the Rabbis tie that text with love of neighbor as self throughout Rabbinic debate.
Jesus would know this story about Hillel. Jesus would know this context. Jesus was not putting the Pharisees in their place with a new teaching, but rather taking a side in an existing Rabbinic Debate.
Specifically the question should be heard like this: Rabbi, some of us say that all the laws are equally important. But others say some are more important than others. How say you?
Then Jesus - God in the Flesh - gives a shoutout to Hillel.
That's a much better sermon! In another Gospel passage recounting the same story, the querent responds with "you have answered well..." Jesus is agreeing with a certain party of Pharisees.
The first Gospel Passage, with the Herodians, is beyond funny. Jesus is still debating with others, but in this case, he's debating with Herodians. They are fans of the established political order. They don't rightly care what the religious folks do as long as the Herodians get to stay on top of the secular pecking order. They are, basically, successful, secular Jews in our modern understanding. They are as closely aligned with the political power structure as the pro-Israel lobby is in the US today.
So, on the coin, whose image is this? In Greek Jesus asks, "Whose icon is this?" The answer is correct: it is Caesar. But, brothers and sisters, Whose icon is Caesar? Every human being is created as the icon of God!
When the Herodians, not even thinking religiously, hear "Render to Caesar..." they are pleased. Yet Jesus says something even more shocking: and much more in keeping with the Hebrew Prophets. Jesus says whatever political authority you have... This is part of God's icon, part of God's plan. This is the root of St Paul saying that all authority is God-given and that the King is God's instrument. This is right in line with the Hebrew Prophets saying God has used Persia to save the Jews (even calling the King of Persia "Messiah" at one point!)
Jesus says, "You're right... but not enough. You're drawing distinctions where there are none to draw."
We, friends, must stop drawing lines of rupture between Jesus and his culture. God in the flesh decided the time and the place of his incarnation. The culture, the people, the politics, the family structure, the class war, these are not accidents. Nor are they necessarily divinely ordained for all time, to be clear. But they are the choices God made for making points.
If we rob the Gospel story of those points, the rest falls apart and becomes a nice story about a hippie with a leftist political agenda... but that's only for us, today. Another party could rob Jesus of his Judaism and make him out as a hatemonger. (Failing to invoke Godwin's law would be an error here: Nazis said there were no real differences between Jesus and Hitler. Right wing hate groups today make Jesus out as a white supremacist. Although conservatives often have Anti-semitism in their works, I say "liberals" because they often drive this point home to toss out all the Jewish Law, including teachings on sex and morality. Also the "Jesus Seminar" and their ilk, eliminates anything from the sayings of Jesus that other teachers were saying at the time... so that Jesus becomes almost entirely disconnected from his Jewish conversants. This idea that the Jewish Scriptures are so filled with error that we toss them out is a heresy condemned by the Church.